After obtaining a degree in Turin in 1793, he was nominated professor of Anatomy at the University of Sassari. With the Restoration and the return of the Savoy Royal Family to Piedmont, he was entrusted with teaching Anatomy in Turin where he undertook to enrich the collection of the Museum of Anatomy in Turin.
Thanks to the experience gained while attending the School of Ceroplastics in Florence between 1805 and 1807, on his return to Turin, Rolando trained modelling technicians, who created most of the anatomical waxes now on display in the Museum.
Rolando's scientific contribution especially concerns neuroanatomy. Some forms of the nervous system have been named after him (Rolando central sulcus, Rolando gelatinous substance).